Robert (Rob) MacCoun
Professor of Law,
Professor (by Courtesy) of Psychology,
and Senior Fellow, Freeman-Spogli Institute
Neukom Building, Room 211
Stanford, CA 94305-8610
Politics and Bias in the Research Process
MacCoun, R. J., & Perlmutter, S. (in press). Blind analysis as a correction for confirmatory bias in physics and in psychology. To appear in S. O. Lilienfeld & I. Waldman (Eds.), Psychological science under scrutiny: Recent challenges and proposed solutions. John Wiley and Sons.
MacCoun, R. J., & Perlmutter, S. (2015). Hide results to seek the truth. Nature, 526, 187-189.
MacCoun, R. J. (2015). The epistemic contract: Fostering appropriate public trust in experts. In B. H. Bornstein & A. J. Tomkins (Eds.). Motivating cooperation and compliance with authority: The roles of institutional trust and confidence (Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, Vol. 62, pp. 191-214). New York: Springer.
MacCoun, R. J. (2010). The implicit rules of evidence-based drug policy, updated. Addiction, 105, 1335-1336.
MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. (2008). The implicit rules of evidence-based drug policy: A US perspective (invited comment). International Journal of Drug Policy, 19, 231-232.
MacCoun R. J., & Paletz, S. (2009). Citizens’ perceptions of ideological bias in research on public policy controversies._ Political Psychology, 30, 43-65. [Note: During the editing process, we accidentally used a formatting command that put negative signs on all the standard errors while moving them into parentheses. Oops! Standard errors can only take on a positive value, and the absolute values of the displayed standard errors are all correct.]
R. (2005). Conflicts
of interest in public policy research. In
MacCoun, R. (2003). Review of Shadish, Cook, & Campbell’s Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for generalized causal inference (book review). Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 22, 330-332.
MacCoun, R. (2002). Why a psychologist won the Nobel Prize in Economics. American Psychological Society Observer, 15(10), pp. 1, 8.
MacCoun, R. J. (2001). American distortion of Dutch drug statistics. Society, 38, 23-26. [Note that there is a typographical error; the second-to-last sentence should read "Accuracy won't invariably breed consensus," rather than "Accuracy will invariably breed consensus."]
MacCoun, R. J. (1999). Epistemological dilemmas in the assessment of legal decision making. Law & Human Behavior, 23, 723-730.
MacCoun, R. (1998). Biases in the interpretation and use of research results. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 259-287.
MacCoun, R. J., & Kerr, N. L. (1987). Suspicion in the psychological laboratory: Kelman's prophecy revisited. American Psychologist, 42, 199.
MacCoun, R. J. (in press). Interpreting trends in THC potency: Three stories, one of which may be true (invited comment). Addiction.
MacCoun, R. J. (2014, October 26). Grow your own marijuana law. San Francisco Chronicle, Sunday Insight Section (cover essay).
Kilmer, B., Caulkins, J. P., Midgette, G., Dahlkemper, L., MacCoun, R. J., & Pacula, R. L. (2013). Before the grand opening: Measuring Washington State’s marijuana market in the last year before legalized commercial sales. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
MacCoun, R. J. (2013). The puzzling unidimensionality of DSM-5 substance use disorder diagnoses. Frontiers in Psychiatry.
MacCoun, R. J. (2013). The paths not (yet) taken: Lower risk alternatives to full market legalization of cannabis. In K. Tate, J. L. Taylor, & M. Q. Sawyer (eds.), Something’s in the air: Race and the legalization of marijuana (pp. 40-53). Routledge.
MacCoun, R. J. (2013). Moral outrage and opposition to harm reduction. Symposium on Vice Law and Philosophy, Criminal Law & Philosophy, 7, 83-98.
Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., MacCoun, R. J., Pacula, R. L., & Reuter, P. (2012). Design considerations for legalizing cannabis. Addiction, 107, 865-871.
[with Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., MacCoun, R. J., Pacula, R. L., & Reuter, P. (2012). Response to commentaries. Addiction, 107, 876-877.]
MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. (2011). Assessing drug prohibition and its alternatives: A guide for agnostics. Annual Review of Law & Social Science, 7, 61-78.
[This paper updates our book Drug War Heresies, taking into account research and policy developments in the 2001-2011 decade.]
MacCoun, R. J. (2011). How should expert judgment inform the legalization debate? In P. Cook, J. Ludwig & J. McCrary (eds.), Controlling crime: Strategies and payoffs. University of Chicago Press.
MacCoun, R. J. (2011). What can we learn from the Dutch cannabis coffeeshop system? Addiction, 106, 1899-1910. [Note that the vertical axis on Figure 1 should read “Lifetime prevalence (%)” and not “Used cannabis in last year (%)”. The caption should read “Association between perceived availability of cannabis and lifetime use…” rather than “…its use in past year…” -- I thank Benjamin Teal for catching this error.]
B., Caulkins, J. P., Pacula, R. L., MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. H. (2010).
state? Assessing how marijuana legalization in California could influence marijuana
consumption and public budgets. (65 page peer-reviewed report.)
MacCoun, R., Pacula, R. L., Reuter, P., Chriqui, J., Harris, K. (2009). Do citizens know whether they live in a decriminalization state? State marijuana laws and perceptions. Review of Law & Economics, 5(1, 347-371.
R. J., & Martin, K. (2009). Drug use and drug
policy in a prohibition regime (pp. 501-523). In M. Tonry
MacCoun, R. J. (2009). Harm reduction is a good label for a criterion all drug programs should meet (invited comment). Addiction, 104, 341-342.
MacCoun, R. J. (2008). Bridging the gap between science and drug policy: From “what” and “how” to “whom” and “when” (invited comment). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 454-455.
Reuter, P., & MacCoun, R. J. (2007, November/December). Invited comment on Ethan Nadelmann’s “Think again: Drugs.” Foreign Policy, pp. 4-5.
MacCoun, R. J. (2007). Testing drugs vs. testing users: Private risk management in the shadow of the criminal law. DePaul Law Review, 56, 507-538.
MacCoun, R. J. (2006). Competing accounts of the gateway effect: The field thins, but still no clear winner. Invited commentary, Addiction, 101, 473-474
Pacula, R. L., MacCoun, R., Reuter, P., Chriqui, J., Kilmer, B., Harris, K., Paoli, L., & Schaefer, C. (2005). What does it mean to decriminalize marijuana? A cross-national empirical examination. In B. Lindgren & M. Grossman (eds.), Substance use: Individual behaviour, social interactions, markets and politics (pp. 347-370). Elsevier/North-Holland.
J., & MacCoun, R. (2005). Deterring imperfectly rational actors: The case
of drug enforcement (pp. 315-338). In Francesco Parisi and Vernon Smith (eds.), The law and economics of
R. J. (2004). Anticipating
unintended consequences of vaccine-like immunotherapies for addictive drug use.
In H. R. Harwood & T. G. Myers (eds.), New treatments for addiction:
Behavioral, ethical, legal, and social questions. National
Research Council and the
Kilmer, B., & MacCoun, R. J. (2004). Public policy on addictive disorders. In R. Coombs (ed.), Addictive disorders: A practical handbook. Wiley.
MacCoun, R. (2004). Population thinking as an adjunct to the clinical trial (invited editorial). Psychiatric Services, 55, 509-510, 515.
R. J. (2003). Is the addiction
concept useful for drug policy? In R. Vuchinich
& N. Heather (eds.), Choice, behavioural
economics and addiction.
R. J. (2003). Comments
on Chaloupka, Emery, and Laing. In R. Vuchinich & N. Heather (eds.), Choice,
behavioural economics and addiction.
R., Kilmer, B., & Reuter, P. (2003, September). Research on drug-crime linkages: The
next generation (commissioned paper). In Toward a drugs
and crime research agenda for the 21st century. National
MacCoun, R. (2003, 11 June). O cannabis! Pot decriminalization in Canada highlights America's isolation. San Francisco Chronicle, A27.
Caulkins, J., & MacCoun, R. (2003). Limited rationality and the limits of supply reduction. Journal of Drug Issues, 33, 433-464.
P., & MacCoun, R. (2002). Heroin maintenance: Is a
MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. (2002). Marijuana, heroin, and cocaine. [Their title, not ours!] The American Prospect, 13(30), 25-28.
MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (eds.) (2002). The varieties of drug control at the dawn of the 21st century. Special issue of the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 582, July.
R., & Reuter, P. (2002). The varieties
of drug control at the dawn of the 21st century (overview essay) . Annals
R., & Reuter, P. (2001). Drug war heresies: Learning
from other vices, times, and places.
Manski, C., Pepper, J., & Petrie, C. (2001). Informing America's policy
on illegal drugs: What we don't know keeps hurting us .
Statement of the Federation of American Scientists
Drug Policy Project to the U.S. Sentencing Commission: Comment on the proposed
changes to MDMA ("Ecstacy") penalties ,
MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (2001). Evaluating alternative cannabis regimes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 178, 123-128.
MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (1999). Does Europe do it better? Lessons from Holland, Britain, and Switzerland. The Nation, September 20th, Special issue entitled "Beyond Legalization: New Ideas For Ending The War On Drugs."
Invited testimony , Hearing on "Drug
Decriminalization," House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight,
Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources,
R. J. (1998). Breaking the impasse in American drug policy. In E. L. Rubin
(Ed.), Minimizing harm: A new crime policy for modern
R. (1998). Toward a psychology of
harm reduction. American Psychologist, 53, 1199-1208.
[Earlier draft appeared as "The psychology of harm reduction: Alternative
strategies for modifying high-risk behavior," in 1996 Wellness Lectures
R., & Reuter, P. (1998). Drug control. In M. Tonry
(Ed.), The handbook of crime and punishment (pp. 207-238).
MacCoun, R. (1998). In what sense (if any) is marijuana a gateway drug? Drug Policy Analysis Bulletin, 4, 5-8.
MacCoun, R., & Reuter, P. (1997). Interpreting Dutch cannabis policy: Reasoning by analogy in the legalization debate. Science, 278, 47-52.
Federation of American Scientists Drug Policy Project (1997). Principles for practical drug policies. [This is not my publication; I was a co-signer, and a co-presenter at the press conference. I post it here for interested readers.]
MacCoun, R. J. (1996). Is melioration the addiction theory of choice? (invited commentary) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 19, 586-587.
Reuter, P., & MacCoun, R. (1996). Harm reduction and social policy: Should addicts be paid? Drug and Alcohol Review, 15, 225-230.
R., Reuter, P., & Schelling, T. (1996). Assessing alternative drug control regimes.
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 15, 1-23. [Reprinted in
Reuter, P., & MacCoun, R. (1995). Drawing lessons from the absence of harm reduction in American drug policy. Tobacco Control, 4 (Supplement 2), S28-S32.
Saner, H., MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. (1995). On the ubiquity of drug selling among youthful offenders in Washington, D.C., 1985-1991: Age, period, or cohort effect? Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 11, 337-362.
R. J., Model, K., Phillips-Shockley, H., & Reuter, P. (1995). Comparing
drug policies in
P., & MacCoun, R. J. (1995). Assessing the legalization debate. In G. Estievenart (Ed.), Policies and strategies to combat
R. J., & Caulkins, J. (1996). Examining the
behavioral assumptions of the national drug control strategy. In W. K.
Bickel & R. J. DeGrandpre (Eds.), Drug policy
and human nature: Psychological perspectives on the prevention, management, and
treatment of illicit drug use (pp. 177-197).
Reuter, P., Falco, M., & MacCoun, R. J. (1993). Comparing
Western European and North American drug policies: An international conference
MacCoun, R. J., Kahan, J., Gillespie, J., & Rhee, J. (1993). A content analysis of the drug legalization debate. Journal of Drug Issues, 23, 615-629.
MacCoun, R., Reuter, P., Kahan, J., & Saiger, A. (1993). Drug policies and problems: The promise and pitfalls of cross-national comparisons. In N. Heather, A. Wodak, E. Nadelmann, & P. O'Hare (Eds.), Psychoactive drugs and harm reduction: From faith to science (pp. 103-117), London: Whurr Publishers.
MacCoun, R. J. (1993). Drugs and the law: A psychological analysis of drug prohibition. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 497-512.
P., & MacCoun, R. J. (1992). Street drug markets in inner-city
neighborhoods: Matching policy to reality. In J. B. Steinberg, D. W. Lyon,
& M. E. Vaiana (Eds.), Urban
MacCoun, R. J., & Reuter, P. (1992). Are the wages of sin $30 an hour? Economic aspects of street-level drug dealing. Crime and Delinquency, 38, 477-491.
P., MacCoun, R. J., and Murphy, P. (1990). Money from
crime: A study of the economics of drug dealing in Washington, D.C.
Sah, S., Moore, D., & MacCoun, R. (2013). Cheap talk and credibility: The consequences of confidence and accuracy on advisor credibility and persuasiveness. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 121, 246-255.
Kerr, N. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (2012). Is the leniency asymmetry really dead? Misinterpreting asymmetry effects in criminal jury deliberation. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 15, 585-602.
Robbennolt, J., Darley, J., & MacCoun, R. J. (2010). Constraint satisfaction and judging. (pp. 27-40). In David Klein & Gregory Mitchell (eds.), The psychology of judicial decision making. Oxford.
Tenney, E. R., Spellman, B. A., & MacCoun, R. J. (2008). The benefits of knowing what you know (and what you don’t): Fact-finders rely on others who are well calibrated. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
MacCoun, R. J. (2008). Complex evidence in litigation. In B. L. Cutler (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law.
Kerr, N. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (2008). Juries and the leniency bias. In B. L. Cutler (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law.
Tenney, E. R., MacCoun, R. J., Spellman, B. A., & Hastie, R. (2007). Calibration trumps confidence as a basis for witness credibility. Psychological Science, 18, 46-50.
MacCoun, R. J. (2006). Psychological constraints on transparency in legal and government decision making. In A. Gosseries (ed.), Symposium on publicity and accountability in governance, Swiss Political Science Review,12, 112-123.
R. J. (2006). The relativity of judgment as a challenge for behavioral law and
economics (Invited Essay),
R. J. (2005). Comparing
legal factfinders: Real and mock, amateur and
J. K., Darley, J. M., & MacCoun, R. J. (2003). Symbolism and incommensurability in
civil sanctioning: Decision-makers as goal managers.
R. (2002). Comparing micro and macro
rationality. In M. V. Rajeev Gowda
and Jeffrey Fox (Eds.), Judgments, decisions, and public policy.
MacCoun, R. J. (2000). The costs and benefits of letting juries punish corporations: Comment on Viscusi. Stanford Law Review, 52, 1821-1828.
Vidmar, N., Lempert, R. O., Diamond, S. S., Hans, V. P., Landsman, S., MacCoun, R., Sanders, J., Hosch, H. M., Kassin, S., Galanter, M., Eisenberg, T., Daniels, S., Greene, E., Martin, J., Penrod, S., Richardson, J., Heuer, L., & Horowitz, I. (2000). Amicus brief: Kumho Tire v. Carmichael. Law & Human Behavior, 24, 387-400.
Anderson, M. C., & MacCoun, R. J. (1999). Goal conflict in juror assessments of compensatory and punitive damages. Law & Human Behavior, 23, 313-330.
Kerr, N., MacCoun, R. J., & Kramer, G. (1996). Bias in judgment: Comparing individuals and groups. Psychological Review, 103, 687-719.
N. L., MacCoun, R. J., & Kramer, G. P. (1996). When are N heads better (or
worse) than one? Biased judgment in individuals vs. groups.
In E. Witte & J. H. Davis (Eds.), Understanding group behavior (Vol. 1):
Consensual action by small groups (pp. 105-136).
MacCoun, R. J. (1996). Differential treatment of corporate defendants by juries: An examination of the 'deep pockets' hypothesis. Law and Society Review, 30, 121-161.
R. J. (1993). Inside the black box: What empirical
research tells us about decisionmaking by civil
juries. In R. E. Litan (Ed.), Verdict: Assessing
the civil jury system (pp. 137-180),
MacCoun, R. J. (1990). The emergence of extralegal bias during jury deliberation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 303-314.
R. J. (1989). Experimental research on jury decision making. Science, 244, 1046-1050.
[Reprinted in Jurimetrics: Journal of Law, Science, and Technology, 1990, 30,
223-233.] [Reprinted in R. M. Krivoshey (Ed.)(1994),
MacCoun, R. J., & Kerr, N. L. (1988). Asymmetric influence in mock jury deliberation: Jurors' bias for leniency. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 21-33.
R. J. (1987). Getting inside the black box: Toward a better understanding of
civil jury behavior.
Kerr, N. L., MacCoun, R. J., Hansen, C. H., & Hymes, J. A. (1987). Gaining and losing social support: Momentum in decision making groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23, 119-145.
R. J. (1986). Fictional and factual juries (review of Anatomy
of a jury by
Carroll, J. S., Kerr, N. L., Alfini, J. J., Weaver, F. M., MacCoun, R. J., & Feldman, V. (1986). Free press and fair trial: The role of behavioral research. Law and Human Behavior, 10, 187-201.
R. J. (1985). Evaluating juror performance (review of A. D. Austin's Complex
litigation confronts the jury system). Judicature, June-July issue.
[Reprinted in the
N. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (1985). The effects of jury size and polling method on the process and
product of jury deliberation. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 48, 349-363. [Reprinted in L. S. Wrightsman,
S. M. Kassin, and C. E. Willis (Eds.), In the jury
box: Controversies in the courtroom (pp. 209-234).
Kerr, N. L., Bull, R., MacCoun, R. J., & Rathborn, H. (1985). Effects of victim attractiveness, care, and disfigurement on the judgements of American and British mock jurors. British Journal of Social Psychology, 24, 47-58.
Tyler, T., Goff, P., & MacCoun, R. J. (in press). The impact of psychology on American policing: Procedural justice, legitimacy, and effective law enforcement. Psychology in the Public Interest (whole issue).
Braver, S. L., Ellman, I. M., & MacCoun, R. J. (2014, April 14). Public intuitions about Fair child support allocations: Converging evidence for a “fair shares” rule. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/law0000003
Ellman, I. M., Braver, S., & MacCoun, R. J. (2012). Abstract principles and concrete cases in intuitive lawmaking. Law and Human Behavior, 36, 98-108.
Braver, S., MacCoun, R. J., & Ellman,
R. J. (2006). Media reporting of
jury verdicts: Is the tail (of the distribution) wagging the dog?, Clifford
Symposium on Tort Law,
MacCoun, R. J. (2005). Voice, control, and belonging: The double-edged sword of procedural fairness. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, Vol. 1 .
MacCoun, R. (2001). Public opinion about legal issues. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences.
Kulik, C. T., Lind, E. A., Ambrose, M. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (1996). Understanding gender differences in distributive and procedural justice. Social Justice Research, 9, 351-369.
Bailis, D. S., & MacCoun, R. J. (1996). Estimating liability risks with the media as your guide: A content analysis of media coverage of civil litigation. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 419-429. [Abridged version reprinted in Judicature, 1996, 80, 64-67.]
MacCoun, R. J. (1995). Review of K. R. Foster, D. E. Bernstein, & P. W. Huber (Eds.), Phantom risk: Scientific inference and the law (MIT Press, 1993). Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 14, 168-171.
MacCoun, R. J. (1993). Blaming others to a fault? Chance, 6, 31-34 and 18.
R. J. (1993). Is there a deep-pockets bias in the tort system? Institute
for Civil Justice Issue Paper.
R. J., Lind, E. A., & Tyler, T. R. (1992). Alternative
dispute resolution in trial and appellate courts (pp. 95-118). In D. K. Kagehiro & W. S. Laufer
(Eds.), The handbook of psychology and law.
MacCoun, R. J. (1991). Unintended consequences of court-annexed arbitration: A cautionary tale from New Jersey. Justice System Journal, 14, 229-243.
Hensler, D., Marquis, S., Abrahamse, A.,
Hensler, D., Marquis, S., Abrahamse, A.,
Lind, E. A., MacCoun, R. J., Ebener, P. A., Felstiner, W. L. F., Hensler, D. R., Resnick, J., & Tyler, T. R. (1990). In the eye of the beholder: Tort litigants' evaluations of their experiences in the civil justice system. Law and Society Review, 24, 953-996.
E. A., MacCoun, R. J., Ebener, P. A., Felstiner, W. L. F., Hensler, D.
R., Resnick, J., & Tyler, T. R. (1989). The perception of justice: Tort litigants' views of trials,
court-annexed arbitration, and judicial settlement conferences .
R. J., Lind, E. A., Hensler, D. R., Bryant, D. L.,
& Ebener, P. (1988). Alternative
adjudication: An evaluation of the New Jersey automobile arbitration program.
MacCoun, R. J., & Tyler, T. R. (1988). The basis of citizens' perceptions of the criminal jury: Procedural fairness, accuracy and efficiency. Law and Human Behavior, 12, 333-352.
L. A., Hymes, R. W., & MacCoun, R. J. (1986).
Group categorization and distributive justice decisions. In H. W. Bierhoff, R. L. Cohen, and J. Greenberg (Eds.), Justice
in social relations (pp. 227-248).
MacCoun, R. J. (2015). Balancing evidence and norms in cultural evolution. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 129, 93-104.
MacCoun, R. J. (2014). Alternative maps for the world of collective behavior. Invited comment, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 37: 88-90.
MacCoun, R. J. (2012). The volatility of social influence when everyone is your neighbor. Policy Notes, Spring 2012, 8-9.
MacCoun, R. J. (2012). The burden of social proof: Shared thresholds and social influence. Psychological Review, 119, 345-372.
MacCoun, R. J., & Hix, W. M. (2010). Cohesion and performance. In National Defense Institute (collective authorship), Sexual orientation and U.S. military policy: An update of RAND’s 1993 study. Santa Monica: RAND. Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense as part of the 2010 Pentagon evaluation of the Don’t Ask Don’t Tell policy. (Note: The chapter reviews 17 years of new research since my 1993 cohesion analysis.)
MacCoun, R. J., Cook, P., Muschkin, C., & Vigdor, J. (2008). Distinguishing spurious and real norm effects: Evidence from artificial societies, small-group experiments, and real schoolyards. Review of Law & Economics, 4(3), 695-714,_ http://www.bepress.com/rle/vol4/iss3/art2/
Cook, P., MacCoun, R. J., Muschkin, C., & Vigdor, J. (2008). The negative impacts of starting middle school in sixth grade. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27, 104-121. This paper received the 2008 Raymond Vernon Memorial Prize from the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management.
MacCoun, R., Kier, E., & Belkin, A. (2006). Does social cohesion determine motivation in combat? An old question with an old answer, Armed Forces and Society, 32, 646-654.
Y., & MacCoun, R. J. (2005). Some well-aged wines for the
“new norms” bottles: Implications of social psychology for law and economics.
In Francesco Parisi and Vernon
Smith (eds.), The law and economics of irrational behavior (pp.358-394).
R. J. (2003). “Don’t ask, don’t tell” and military unit
cohesion. In A. Belkin and G. Bateman (eds.), Don’t
ask, don’t tell: Debating the gay ban in the military (pp. 77-81).
R. J., & Schlossman, S. (2000, January 3). What's germane is a soldier's behavior. (Essay on
R. J. (1996). Sexual orientation and military cohesion: A
critical review of the evidence. In G. M. Herek,
J. B. Jobe, & R. Carney (Eds.), Out in force:
Sexual orientation and the military.
Defense Research Institute (1993). Sexual orientation and
U.S. military personnel policy: Policy options and assessment (Report to
the Secretary of Defense).
R. J. (1993). Unit cohesion and
military performance. In National Defense
Research Institute, Sexual orientation and
Jackson, L. A., MacCoun, R. J., & Kerr, N. L. (1987). Stereotypes and nonstereotypic inferences: The effects of gender role attitudes on inferences of likeability, adjustment, and occupational potential. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 45-52.
Kerr, N. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (1985). Role expectations in social dilemmas: Sex roles and task motivation in groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1547-1556.
Kerr, N. L., & MacCoun, R. J. (1984). Sex composition of groups and member motivation: Effects of relative member ability. Journal of Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 255-271.
Last Revised: 12 October 2015